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A Brief Introduction to Medieval Maps

Helen Davies, John Wyatt Greenlee, and Tobias Hryrnick

Part II of this video can be found at Digital Resources for Medieval Maps and Mapping

Twitter Contact Information

To comment on, or add to, the online bibliography: https://historiacartarum.org/medieval-maps-and-mapping-resources/medieval-maps-suggestions/

Resource Links:

Medieval Maps and Mapping Bibliography

Mapping Mandeville Project

Matthew Paris’s Clickable Map of England

Gough Map Project

Digital Mappa

Virtual Mappa

Fordham Center for Medieval Studies Oxford Outremer Project

Pelagios

Recogito

Davies, Helen, Greenlee, John Wyatt, and Hryrnick, Tobias, “A Brief Introduction to Medieval Maps.” Middle Ages for Educators, September 12, 2020. Accessed [date]. http://middleagesforeducators.com/uncategorized/a-brief-introduction-to-medieval-maps/

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The People of 1381, by Helen Lacey

Dr Helen Lacey

Mansfield College, University of Oxford

Resources

People of 1381 Project

Petition of Margery Tany

Petition of Margery Tany, widow of Thomas Tany and executrix of his testament.

Discussion Questions

  1. What circumstantial details do we need to take into account when examining the two petitions of Margery Tawney?
  2. Why might women be underrepresented in the archival records of the revolt?
  3. What can this petition tell us about the role of law and justice in the rebellion of 1381?

Further Reading

A. Prescott, ‘‘Great and Horrible Rumour’’: Shaping the English Revolt of 1381’, The Routledge History Handbook of Medieval Revolt, ed. J. Firnhaber-Baker and D. Schoenaers (2016), p. 84.

S. Federico, ‘The Imaginary Society: Women in 1381’, Journal of British Studies, vol. 40, no. 2 (2001), pp. 159-183.

J. Barker, England Arise The People, the King and the Great Revolt of 1381 (2014)

To cite this page:

Lacey, Helen, “The People of 1381,” Middle Ages for Educators, July 22, 2020. Accessed [date].  http://middleagesforeducators.com/videos/the-people-of-1381-by-helen-lacey/

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Linguistic, Literary, and Manuscript History with The Digital Grave, by Leah Pope Parker

Leah Pope Parker, University of Southern Mississippi

Resource

Digital Grave

Discussion Questions

  • What perception of death and dead bodies is suggested by this poem?
  • What kind of reading practices are suggested by the addition of the final three lines of the poem? Why would a reader add these lines?
  • Why would a poem like this be added to a manuscript that otherwise contains no poetry, and is primarily a collection of homilies?

Further Reading

Kitson, Peter R. “Old English Dialects and the Stages of the Transition to Middle English.” Folia Linguistica Historica: Acta Societatis Linguisticae Europaeae, vol. 11, no. 1–2, 1992, pp. 27–87.

Siebert, Eve. “A Possible Source for the Addition to The Grave.” ANQ: A Quarterly Journal of Short Articles, Notes and Reviews, vol. 19, no. 4, Sept. 2006, pp. 8–16.

Thompson, Victoria. Dying and Death in Late Anglo-Saxon England. The Boydell Press, 2004.

Treharne, Elaine M. Living through Conquest: The Politics of Early English, 1020–1220. Oxford University Press, 2012.

To Cite this Page

Parker, Leah Pope, “Linguistic, Literary, and Manuscript History with The Digital Grave,” Middle Ages for Educators, July 22, 2020. Accessed [date]. http://middleagesforeducators.com/videos/linguistic,-literary,-and-manuscript-history-with-the-digital-grave,-by-leah-pope-parker

For feedback, please tweet to @ParkerChronicle

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Meet a Medieval Source Videos

“The Seafarer”, by Moira Fitzgibbons

Moira Fitzgibbons, Marist College

Video Transcript

Primary Sources

Echard, Siȃn. “The Seafarer.”Accessed 26 May 2020.

Glenn, Jonathan. “The Seafarer.” Lightspill, . Accessed 26 May 2020.

Dickinson, Emily. “Poem 387.”  Accessed 30 May 2020.

Hughes, Langston. “The Negro Speaks of Rivers.” Accessed 30 May 2020.

Pound, Ezra. “The Seafarer.” Poetry Foundation. Accessed 26 May 2020.

Further Reading

Bergvall, Caroline. Drift. Nightboat Books, 2014.

Greenfield, Stanley B. “Sylf, Seasons, Structure, and Genre in The Seafarer.” Anglo-Saxon England, vol. 9, 1981, pp. 199-211.

Lees, Clare A., and Gillian R. Overing. The Contemporary Medieval in Practice. UCL Press, 2019.

The Lighthouse. Directed by Robert Eggers, performances by Robert Pattinson, Willem Dafoe, and Valeriia Kalaman, A24, 2019.

Matto, Michael. “True Confessions: ‘The Seafarer’ and Technologies of the ‘Sylf.’” The Journal of Germanic and English Philology, vol. 103, no.2, 2004, pp. 156-79.

Olsen, Alexandra, and Burton Raffel, eds. “The Seafarer.” Poems and Prose from the Old English. Yale UP, 1998. P. 10.

Treharne, Elaine, ed. “The Seafarer.” Old and Middle English c. 890-c. 1450: An Anthology. Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. pp. 48-53.

To Cite this Page

Fitzgibbons, Moira, “The Seafarer” Middle Ages for Educators, June 6, 2020. Accessed[date]. http://middleagesforeducators.com/uncategorized/”the-seafarer,”-by-moira-fitzgibbons/

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An Introduction to the Letter of Caesaria of Arles to Radegund of Poitiers, by Hope Williard

Dr. Hope Williard, University of Lincoln

Readings and Resources (freely available online)

Discussion Questions

  • What were the possibilities and limitations of monastic life for early medieval women?
  • What might this letter tell us about Merovingian women’s literacy?
  • What is asceticism? How is it depicted in this letter?

Bibliography (available as e-books through library subscriptions)

  • Angelo Di Berardino, ed. Encyclopedia of Ancient Christianity (Downers’ Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 1994-2013), pp. 1:407 (biography of Caesaria) and 3:374 (biography of Radegund).
  • Jo Ann McNarama and John E. Halborg, with E. Gordon Whately, Sainted Women of the Dark Ages (Durham: Duke University Press, 1992), pp. 112-8.

Further Reading (available online through library subscriptions)

  • Magdalena Elizabeth Carrasco, “Spirituality in Context: The Romanesque Illustrated Life of St. Radegund of Poitiers (Poitiers, Bibl. Mun., MS 250).” The Art Bulletin 72: 3 (1990), pp. 414–435. 
  • Jennifer C. Edwards, Superior Women: Medieval Female Authority in Poiters’ Abbey of Sainte-Croix (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019), pp. 25-59.

To Cite This Page

Williard, Hope, “An Introduction to the Letter of Caesaria of Arles to Radegund of Poitiers,” Middle Ages for Educators, May 8, 2020. Accessed[date]. http://middleagesforeducators.com/uncategorized/an-introduction-to-the-letter-of-caesaria-of-arles-to-radegund-of-poitiers,-by-hope-williard/

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Early Transmission of the Black Death, by Hannah Barker

Hannah Barker, Arizona State University

Primary Sources

Petition from the Residents of Caffa, 1347

Mussis, Gabriele de’. “The Arrival of the Plague.” In The Black Death, ed. Rosemary Horrox, 14-26. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1994.

Further Reading: Primary Sources

Bartsocas, Christos. “Two Fourteenth Century Greek Descriptions of the ‘Black Death’.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 21 (1966): 394-400.

Heyligen, Louis. “The Plague in Avignon.” In The Black Death, ed. Rosemary Horrox, 41-45. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1994.

Dols, Michael. “Ibn al-Wardi’s Risalah al-naba’ ‘an al-waba. A Translation of a Major Source for the History of the Black Death in the Middle East.” In Near Eastern Numismatics.  Iconography, Epigraphy, and History:  Studies in Honor of George C. Miles, ed. Dickran Kouymijian and George Miles, 443-455. Beirut: American University of Beirut, 1974.  

Muisis, Gilles. “The Plague Seen from Tournai.” In The Black Death, ed. Rosemary Horrox, 45-47. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1994. 

The Report of the Paris Medical Faculty, October 1348.” In The Black Death, ed. Rosemary Horrox, 158-163. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1994.

Villani, Giovanni. “Chronicle.” In John Aberth, The Black Death: The Great Mortality of 1348-1350: A Brief History with Documents, 19-20. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

Discussion Questions

  1. In this petition, the inhabitants of Caffa ask for money, soldiers, and a bishop. Why do they need each of those things? Why do they turn to the doge of Genoa for help?
  2. At the time when this petition was written, had anyone in Caffa shown symptoms of plague? If so, which symptoms? If not, why did the petition mention “an endless plague of death”?
  3. Compare what this source says about the early transmission of the Black Death with the account of Gabriele de’ Mussis. Based on what you know about modern medical research on plague transmission, which version makes more sense? Based on what you know about medieval ideas about disease and contagion, which version would make more sense to medieval readers?
  4. Compare what this source says about the early transmission of the Black Death with another source from the list of Further Reading – Primary Sources. How are the two accounts similar? How are they different? What do you think the differences imply?

Further Reading – Seconday Sources

Barker, Hannah. “Laying the Corpses to Rest: Grain Embargoes and the Early Transmission of the Black Death in the Black Sea, 1346-1347.” Speculum (forthcoming 2021). Preprint on BodoArXiv, May 2, 2020. 

Dols, Michael. The Black Death in the Middle East. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979. 

Green, Monica, ed. Pandemic Disease in the Medieval World: Rethinking the Black Death. In The Medieval Globe 1, no. 1 (2014). Accessed May 7, 2020. 

Schamiloglu, Uli. “The Impact of the Black Death on the Golden Horde: Politics, Economy, Society, Civilization.” Golden Horde Review 5, no. 2 (2017): 325-343.

Spyrou, Maria, Marcel Keller, Rezeda Tukhbatova, et al. “Phylogeography of the Second Plague Pandemic Revealed through Analysis of Historical Yersinia pestis Genomes.” Nature Communications 10/4470 (2019), 1-13.

Varlik, Nükhet. Plague and Empire in the Early Modern Mediterranean World: The Ottoman Experience, 1347-1600. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

To Cite This Page

Barker, Hannah, “Early Transmission of the Black Death,” Middle Ages for Educators, May 7, 2020. Accessed[date]. http://middleagesforeducators.com/uncategorized/early-transmission-of-the-black-death,-by-hannah-barker/

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Music and the Black Plague in Tuscany, by Eleonora Beck

Eleonora Beck, Lewis & Clark College

Primary Sources

Detail from The Triumph of Death, by Buonamico Buffalmacco, fresco, Campo Santo, Pisa, c. 1338-39

And full image with details The Three Dead and the Three Living (on the left) and The Triumph of Death, fresco, Campo Santo, Pisa, c. 1338-39

Effects of Good Government on the City Life, by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, fresco, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, 1338.

Audio Source

Per Tropo Fede

Digital Resource

Decameron Web

Discussion Questions

  1. What kind of music did Florentines listen to as they battled the Black Plague?
  2. Why is music so prominent in Ambrogio Lorenzetti’s Effects of Good Government and the Decameron of Boccaccio?
  3. What can we learn from the 14th century in our battle against the Corona virus?

To Cite this Page

Beck, Eleanora, “Music and the Black Plague in Tuscany,” Middle Ages for Educators, May 6, 2020. Accessed[date]. http://middleagesforeducators.com/uncategorized/music-and-the-black-plague-in-tuscany,-by-eleonora-beck/

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Chandos Herald’s ‘Life of the Black Prince,’ by David Green

David Green, Harlaxton College

Source

Life of the Black Prince by the Herald of Sir John Chandos, ed. and trans. M. K. Pope and E. Lodge (Oxford, 1910). The passage discussed can be found on p. 136, lines 145-93.

Discussion Questions

  • Why did the Hundred Years War start in 1337?
  • Why did the Hundred Years War last so long?
  • What was at stake in the Hundred Years War?
  • Was chivalry anything other than a literary phenomenon in the later middle ages?
  • How did chivalry shape conduct during the Hundred Years War?
  • According to Chandos Herald, what characteristics did the ‘perfect’ knight possess in the late middle ages? Were his views shared widely?

To Cite this Page

Green, David. “Chandos Herald’s ‘Life of the Black Prince,” Middle Ages for Educators, April 21, 2020. Accessed [date]. http://middleagesforeducators.com/videos/chandos-heralds-life-of-the-black-prince-by-david-green/

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María de Zayas, Magic, and #MeToo, by Veronica Menaldi

Veronica Menaldi, The University of Mississippi

Resources

María de Zayas y Sotomayor, La inocencia castigada

English translation: María de Zayas y Sotomayor. The Disenchantments of Love: A Translation of Desengaños Amorosos. Trans. Harriet Boyer, SUNY P, 1997. Google Books snippet view, p. 175. 

English translation of Picatrix: A Medieval Treatise on Astral MagicTrans. Dan Attrell and David Porecca, Pennsylvania State UP, 2019. Google Books snippet view, p. 146-7 and 193-4

Aljamiado libro de dichos maravillosos: Libro de dichos maravillosos (Misceláneo morisco de magia y adivinación). Spanish Trans. Ana Labarta, CSIC, 1993.  Google Books snippet view, p. 64. More information on this manuscript in Spanish.

Further Reading

Brownlee, Marina. The Cultural Labrinth of María de Zayas. U of Pennsylvania P, 2000.

Wacks, David. Framing Iberia: Maqāmāt and Frametale Narratives in Medieval Spain. Brill, 2007. 

Rogríguez-Rogríguez, Ana M. “Early Modern #MeToo: Maria de Zayas’s Response to Women’s Confined Lives,” Hispanic Issues Online (25:2020), Confined Women: The Walls of Female Space in Early Modern Spain, article 10.

Discussion Questions

  • What comparisons can be made with earlier Iberian texts featuring older women go-betweens? Consider Trotaconventos with Don Melon y Doña Endrina in Juan Ruiz’s 14c Libro de bueno amor, and Celestina with Calisto and Melibea in Fernando de Rojas’s 16c La Celestina/La Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea. Consider strategies used by the go-betweens, the linguistic or material tools used, the punishments that occurred, and possible motivations.
  • Why is the necromancer portrayed as Moorish in the historical context of the Morisco expulsion (1609-1614)? What does distancing of magical practice do?
  • Compare this novela and earlier or contemporaneous Iberian Arabic grimoires. Consider love spells in texts like the Picatrix (13c translation of 10c Arabic Ghāyat al-Hakīm) or the 16/17c Aljamiado Libro de dichos maravillosos. What items were necessary for the spells—both in the novela and the grimoires—and what were the intended results? Are such comparisons fruitful?
  • Consider the novelas in the context of contemporary movements like #metoo. Are these stories similar? How is the complexity of gender relations nuanced as both men and women contributed to doña Inés’s unjust suffering? 

To Cite this Page

Menaldi, Veronica. “María de Zayas, Magic, and #MeToo,” Middle Ages for Educators, April 20, 2020. Accessed[date]. http://middleagesforeducators.com/uncategorized/”maria-de-zayas,-magic,-and-#metoo,”-by-veronica-menaldi/

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Late Medieval Pardon Letters, by Quentin Verreycken

Quentin Verreycken Saint-Louis University, Brussels

*Warning:* This video contains some graphic and disturbing descriptions which may not be suitable for all viewers.

Primary Source Document

A translation of the remission letter granted to Antonie van Claerhout in 1455 can be found in Peter Arnade and Walter Prevenier, Honor, Vengeance, and Social Trouble. Pardon Letters in the Burgundian Low Countries, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 2015, p. 116–18.

Discussion questions

1. Read a pardon letter or a petition for pardon. What do you notice about the rhetorical techniques and legal arguments used by the petitioner to support their demand for pardon?

2. How is violence described in pardon letters? What does that tell us about the medieval attitudes to violence?

3. Why could it be in the interest of a king or a prince to grant pardons? Does the late medieval use of pardoning threaten to deteriorate public order?

4. To what extent was royal pardon connected to the Christian notions of justice and mercy? Check the related vocabulary used in a pardon letter to elaborate on this question.

Online Resources

The Himanis Project website, transcribing and indexing some of the French Trésor des chartes that recorded remission letters.

The Calendars of the patent rolls preserved in the Public record office, available on the HathiTrust website, describe royal pardons granted by the English Crown.

Petitions for pardon submitted to the king of England are accessible on The National Archives website, Special Collection: Ancient Petitions.

Modern editions of French remission letters can be found in the online collections of the Actes royaux du Poitou (1302-1464) and the Lettres de pardon de la chancellerie de Bretagne.

Further Reading

Davis, Natalie Zemon, Fiction in the Archives. Pardon Tales and their Tellers in Sixteenth-Century France, Cambridge, Polity Press, 1987.

Gauvard, Claude, « De grace especial ». Crime, État et société en France à la fin du Moyen Âge, 2 vols., Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 1991.

Lacey, Helen, The Royal Pardon: Access to Mercy in Fourteenth-Century England, York, York Medieval Press, 2009.

Skoda, Hannah, Medieval Violence: Physical Brutality in Northern France, 1270–1330, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013.

Verreycken, Quentin, “‘En nous humblement requerant’: Crime Narrations and Rhetorical Strategies in Late Medieval Pardon Letters,Open Library of Humanities, 5 (1): 62, 2019, p. 1–31.

Verreycken, Quentin, “The Power to Pardon in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe: New Perspectives in the History of Crime and Criminal Justice,History Compass, 2019, e12575.

To Cite this Page

Verreycken, Quentin. “Late Medieval Pardon Letters,” Middle Ages for Educators, April 19, 2020. Accessed[date]. http://middleagesforeducators.com/uncategorized/late-medieval-pardon-letters,-by-quentin-verreycken/